From ancient temples to reminders of Indonesiaâ€™s founding father, this low-key East Javanese city has more than its share of attractions for history-minded travelers.
On the southwestern flanks of Mount Kelud, one of the most active volcanoes on Java, the bas-reliefs encrusting the ruined Hindu temple complex of Penataran feel as though they could come alive at any moment. They emerge from the stonework in an exuberant procession of royalty, battle scenes from the Ramayana, and portraits of rural life, leading visitors in slow circles up and around a monumental three-tiered platform. Iâ€™ve come here with my Javanese friend Harinda Bama in a bid to connect the dots between the foundation of modern Indonesia and the long-lost Majapahit Empire. If only these stones could talk.
Soon after ascending the first tier of Penataranâ€™s main temple, Bama stops to point out a swirling motif weathered by more than six centuries of exposure to the elements, but itâ€™s not something I immediately recognize. â€śYou see this?â€ť I lean in closer, my eyes tracing the outline of what appears to be tongues of fire. â€śIt shows the eruption of Keludâ€”so this temple was actually built to tame the mountain.â€ť
The ancient Javanese believed that volcanic eruptions were signs from the gods, omens of coming events that would forever alter the course of history. A 14th-century epic poem mentions how a major outburst at Kelud heralded the birth of King Hayam Wuruk, who ruled the Majapahit Empire at its peak. The subsequent arrival of Islam and Christianity barely dislodged the deep-rooted respect and veneration for Indonesiaâ€™s fire-breathing mountains; even today, large eruptions are interpreted as harbingers of political change.
In the early hours of May 23, 1901, Kelud rumbled to life with an eruption so violent it was heard more than 300 kilometers away. Two weeks later, a boy was born at sunrise in a modest Surabaya home. His mother nicknamed him Putra Sang Fajar (â€śSon of the Dawnâ€ť), a moniker that gained new meaning as the child grew up and joined the struggle to end three centuries of Dutch colonial rule.
This post-eruption baby was none other than Sukarno, Indonesiaâ€™s first and most charismatic president. For his political activities against the Dutch, he served time in jail and was exiled to remote corners of the archipelagoâ€”most notably the town of Ende in Flores, where he developed the state ideology of Pancasila while contemplating beneath a breadfruit tree. During his 21-year tenure as president, he gifted Jakarta, where I now live, with a slew of monuments celebrating the rise of the newfound republic. But perhaps no place in Indonesia is as closely connected to the man as Blitar, an unassuming city of about 130,000 people in the heartland of East Java. Itâ€™s just a half-hour drive to the south of Penataran, and well known among Indonesians as the location of Sukarnoâ€™s childhood home and tomb.
For all its historical significance, Blitar requires a certain amount of effort to reach. The nearest international airport, at Surabaya, is roughly four hours away by car, while traveling by train takes just as long. Bama and I end up catching a domestic flight from Jakarta to Malang; the two-and-a-half hour drive to Blitar takes us through a tableau of paddy fields, workaday towns, and villages, all backed by volcanoes draped in low clouds.
Just before dusk, we arrive at Tugu Blitar, one of four museum-like properties run by lawyer-turned-hotelier Anhar Setjadibrata. A long arbored driveway, shaded from the tropical sun by a cascade of vines, makes for a fitting introduction to what may be Indonesiaâ€™s oldest lodgingsâ€”and the hotel of choice for Sukarno each time he returned to visit his relatives.
Tugu Blitar is centered on a whitewashed mansion from the 1850s designed in the Indies Empire style, with a sweeping front porch held up by stout Doric columns. The structure appears low-slung from a distance, but stepping inside reveals ceilings at least three meters high. Furniture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries graces the rooms, and nine suites flank the main hall where the young Sukarno once came to dance and mingle with the crĂ¨me de la crĂ¨me of Blitar society.
Weâ€™re stunned when the hotelâ€™s operations manager, Suhartini, unlocks the door to the Sang Fajar suite. The presidential quarters are a veritable shrine to the statesman, replete with busts, photos, cabinets filled with his books (alongside those of his children), and a painting of a Balinese woman by Sukarno himself. Below a Garuda Pancasila, the national emblem modeled after a Javan hawk-eagle, the teak divan bed is the widest Iâ€™ve ever seenâ€”wide enough to sleep four people. â€śAll of Indonesiaâ€™s presidents have stayed here, except for Jokowi,â€ť Suhartini says. â€śTomorrow, this will be your room.â€ť